Surgery is one of the main treatment methods for cancer. This may be also the only treatment you need. Surgery is a regional treatment – it only cures the operated area. So, it may recover a non-metastatic cancer that is localized at single area. In general, removal of carcinogenic cell at early stage is regarded as the easiest means.
Surgeon excises the tumor and a certain amount of intact peripheral tissues (also known as clear margin). Moreover, lymph nodes closest to the tumor can be also removed, if presence of carcinogenic cell is noted.
Surgeon sends all excised tissues to laboratory for microscopic examination. This procedure renders many information about the cancer. It helps the doctor to determine if further treatment is needed to minimize risk of recurrence. These treatments are adjuvant (supportive) therapies, frequently called as chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
Some persons receive preoperative treatment in order to reduce size of tumor and facilitate surgical removal. This treatment modality is called as neo-adjuvant (neo-supportive) therapy.
Surgeons occasionally face cancers that are more largely metastatic than estimated. In this case, surgery may last longer than planned or it may be even necessary to stop operation.
If there is metastasis, surgery cannot usually heal this condition. However, surgeon can help a longer survival and guide the treatment in particular cancers. If metastasis is present, therapeutic approaches such as chemotherapy, biological therapy or hormone therapies can represent a better modality that is efficient on whole body. Radiotherapy is also able control or regulates symptoms of cancer at location of metastasis.
Surgery can be the only therapeutic option you need for particular cancers. It is possible to treat small early-stage cancer, when there is no metastasis. Whether surgery is a therapeutic option is decided according to following factors:
Type of cancer you have
Position and stage of your cancer
Your general health status
Surgery may not be the best treatment method if your cancer has spread or is at an advanced stage. In this case, therapeutic approaches such as chemotherapy, biological therapy or hormone therapies can represent a better modality that is efficient on whole body. Radiotherapy can also be used to reduce size of tumors and control symptoms.