Obesity is considered as one of the most important health problems of developed and developing countries. Obesity is the state in which excessive fat tissue rate in the body exceeds the desired level. Above 25% of the body weight in men and above 30% of the body weight in women refers to the presence of obesity.
Many factors play a role in the occurrence of obesity problem. To mention these briefly;
- Superalimentation and wrong nutrition habits
- Insufficient physical activities
- Education level
- Life quality
- Financial situation
- Hormonal and metabolic factors
- Genetic factors
- Psychological problems
- Frequently used low-energy diets
- Smoking and alcohol consumption
- Usage of several drugs like antidepressants
- Parity and intervals between deliveries
Such factors induce obesity problems. While these situations cause to obesity, there are also health problems induced by obesity. Many diseases are found in obese people secondary to obesity. These are:
- Insulin resistance
- Type 2 Diabetes
- Metabolic syndrome
- Gall bladder diseases
- Several types of cancer
- Sleep apnea
- Increased risks in surgical interventions
- Mental problems
- Coronary artery disease
- Increase in blood cholesterol
- Difficulty in breathing
- Pregnancy complications
- Menstrual disorders,
- Skin and fungal infections
- Musculo-skeletal system problems
How is obesity which causes many serious health problems treated?
If the methods in the treatment of obesity is explained in 5 groups;
Medical nutrition (diet) therapy in Obesity
Prepared diet program must be personal. The aim in diet therapy is to reduce body fat depositions by creating an energy gap.
Moreover in the diet, reduction in fat deposits has to be achieved without causing cell loss in muscles and vital organs, while vitamin, mineral and electrolyte loss have to be prevented also.
Exercise therapy in Obesity
Exercise therapy is started after heart and respiration are checked. In earlier stages, exercise therapy is performed moderately as 30-45 minutes, 3 to 5 days per week. Physical activity is started with simple exercises, and it is gradationally increased.
Pharmacologic treatment in Obesity
Supportive medication in the treatment of obesity are certainly not suitable for all the patients. Such medication should be used under advice and control of a doctor.
What is the surgical treatment “Obesity Surgery”, our primary concern?
Obesity is not a health problem which can only be taken under control with diet programs, exercises or medication therapy. With these treatment methods, it is possible to regain the lost weight, or in other words, not to maintain the lost weight. The most effective method in obesity treatment is obesity surgery. Shortly, to rule out one’s obesity problem via surgical intervention.
Obesity surgery basically stands up on two principles. The aim in obesity surgery is; to reduce the volume of the stomach and/or “malabsorption”, which means to provide the prevention of the absorption of nutrition. Obesity surgery can be appealed if obesity duration is more than 5 years and if the patient is 20 to 60 years old.
Surgical intervention for patients with excessive weight in order to lose weight is called obesity surgery or bariatric surgery, which originates from the word “baros”, which means weight in Ancient Greek.
Results of obesity surgery, which is nowadays one of the gradually disseminating methods, are more successful when compared with other methods. Weight loss provided by surgical intervention reduces death rate substantially. The biggest advantage of it is that it reduces obesity-related diseases.
There are also situations which are unsuitable for obesity surgery.These are:
- Severe eating disorder
- Persistent obesity with excessive use of alcohol
- Serious systemic diseases
- Diseases that affect upper alimentary tract
- Requirement of regular use of anti-inflammatory drugs
Methods used in obesity surgery;
This surgery is known as tube stomach surgery. In this method, a particular segment of the stomach is surgically extracted and a tube-shaped stomach is left. It provides weight loss just by reducing the amount of nutrition.
Gastric By-pass Surgeries
Surgeries which reduce nutrition intake and the absorption of nutrition are called gastric by-pass surgeries. In this surgical intervention, the stomach is reduced and a part of small intestines are deactivated in terms of digestion and absorption. Classical by-pass surgery, which we call RYGB, is the surgery which reduces the stomach mostly. Absorption control level is nearly zero.
It is the oldest and strongest Obesity Surgery which provides and maintains weight loss for longest term. No life-long diet is used and nutrition is unconstrained. This effect is dependent on absorption control.
INTENSIVE VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPORT IS ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY.
Although there is no standard for which surgical method is to be used for which obesity patient, many factors like the patients age, gender, BMI, nutritional habit which caused excessive weight, fat distribution, additional health problems and objective amount of weight loss, play a role in this decision.