Allogenic Bone Marrow Transplantation
This method implies transplanting stem cells that are collected from a fully compatible person – whether or not – to the patient.
Since all stem cells collected are intact, risks pertaining to autologous transplantation do not apply. In allogeneic transplantation, transplanting the immune system of healthy person is advantageous.
When stem cells of another person is transplanted, immune systems may not be completely compatible. Thus, immune system of the donor may react against recipient’s organs. It may cause damage in liver, skin, bone marrow and intestines. This is referred as “graft versus host disease”. This condition can be treated, but organ insufficiency may develop, as organ damage has already occurred. This risk does not apply to allogeneic transplantation.
Although allogeneic stem cell transplantation is more frequently performed for cancer patients, it can also be preferred in diseases that are characterized with bone marrow insufficiency.
Primary diseases that allogeneic stem cell transplantation is a therapeutic option:
Acute leukemia (acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia)
Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS).
Severe aplastic anemia and other bone marrow insufficiency conditions (Fanconi anemia, Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, pure erythroid aplasia)
Chronic leukemia (chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia)